Anticholinergics

Anticholinergics (aka antimuscarinic agents) are usually inhaled, but can be given IV in hospital. They are used in respiratory conditions as adjuncts to steroids and β2 receptors agonists. It is also worth remembering that many...

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Asthma

Introduction Asthma is a chronic lung condition in which there is chronic inflammation of the airways, and hypersensitivity of the airways. Symptoms include wheeze, cough, chest tightness and SOB (dyspnoea). It is often worse...

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Beta-agonists

β2– agonists These act on β2 adrenoceptors on bronchial smooth muscle, causing dilation of the smooth muscle whatever the cause. They are selective because they only target the β2 receptors (not β1) and thus...

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Bronchiectasis

Introduction and Aeitology This is a disease that causes local irreversible dilation of the bronchial tree. It is an obstructive lung disease. It is almost always a result of bronchial obstruction leading to infection...

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Bronchiolitis

Introduction This is the most common serious respiratory infection during infancy. It comes in winter epidemics, during which time, 2-3% of all infants are admitted to hospital each year. The primary cause is RSV...

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Bronchitis

Definition The term bronchitis can be confusing. It is poorly defined, and sometimes mis-used. Bronchitis can be acute – typically caused by respiratory tract infections (usually viral), or chronic, typically associated with COPD. Bronchitis...

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Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Introduction Carbon Monoxide (CO) poisoning, also known as the “silent killer” can be a life-threatening situation. CO is an odourless, colourless gas (hence ‘silent’). CO binds to haemoglobin (carboxyhemoglobin) with 240x greater affinity than...

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