ACE Inhibitors

ACE inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) e.g. ramipril, lisinopril, captopril Mechanism ACE inhibitors competitively inhibit the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and thus reduce the generation of angiotensin-II, and also consequently aldosterone. This reduces sodium...

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Amiodarone

Indication and dose Amiodarone is an anti-arrhythmic drug. Used particularly when other drugs have been ineffective or contra-indicated. It is most commonly used in atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter, but is also indicated in:...

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Angiography

Introduction Angiography is a technique used to visualise the inside of vessels, in this case, those of the heart. It is used to assess the extent of angina and ischaemic heart disease. It involves...

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Angioplasty (PCI)

Angioplasty (percutaneous coronary intervention – PCI) Angioplasty – also known as PCI – Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, or PTCA – Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Angioplasty is able to open partially closed vessels before they become totally...

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Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)

Introduction Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) are usually used in hypertension, HF and post-MI, usually when an ACE-inhibitor has been ineffective or not tolerated. They are also used ot treat diabetic nephropathy. ACE-Inhibitors often...

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Aortic Stenosis – AS

Introduction Aortic Stenosis is the narrowing of the three cusps that form the aortic valve. It is distinct from aortic sclerosis which is generally a milder precursor to aortic stenosis. Aortic Stenosis is typically progressive, with...

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Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)

This article provides an overview of atherosclerosis Ischaemic Heart Disease. For more information on Acute Coronary Syndromes, see the  Acute Coronary Syndromes article, and for info on Stable Angina, see the Stable Angina Article...

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Atrial Fibrillation – AF

Atrial fibrillation is a common tachycardia. It is significant, as having the condition increases the risk of stroke. Managing acute atrial fibrillation is a very common problem in the emergency department with many different...

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Beta Blockers

Beta blockers are competitive inhibitors of beta-adrenergic receptors. There are many kinds of vary half lives and lipid solubility. They are used mainly as anti-arrhythmic agents, but are also commonly used as secondary prevention...

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