Allergy

Definitions Allergy – Inappropriate immune response to normally harmless allergen. Allergen – Foreign particles which produce an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction in sensitive individuals. Atopy – genetic predisposition to exaggerated immune responses Pathology Individuals are...

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Asthma

Introduction Asthma is a chronic lung condition in which there is chronic inflammation of the airways, and hypersensitivity of the airways. Symptoms include wheeze, cough, chest tightness and SOB (dyspnoea). It is often worse...

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Bronchiolitis

Introduction This is the most common serious respiratory infection during infancy. It comes in winter epidemics, during which time, 2-3% of all infants are admitted to hospital each year. The primary cause is RSV...

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Bronchitis

The term bronchitis can be confusing, as in adults, it is generally used to refer to chronic bronchitis, a chronic inflammation of the bronchi, which is a component of COPD.   In children it...

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Cerebral Palsy

Introduction This is a movement disorder that results from a non-progressive lesion of motor pathways. Although the lesion does not progress, the symptoms appear gradually, as the child does not develop along normal trends-...

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Chromosomal Abnormalities

Chromosomal abnormalities are a very common cause of spontaneous miscarriage. Most commonly a child with a chromosomal abnormality will not survive to birth. However, there are many cases where the child will survive, although...

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Coarctation of the aorta

Coarctation of the aorta – L-to-R shunt – ACYANOTIC Accounts for up to 10% of congential heart defects Male:female ratio is 2:1 Affects 10-20% of patients with Turner’s Syndrome Almost always affects the thoracic...

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