Abdominal Examination

Summary of Abdominal Examination Introduce yourself, check right patient (name DOB, wrist-band) explain that you are going to perform an abdominal examination and what this will involve, and ask the patient’s permission Get patient...

More

Alcoholic Hepatitis

Introduction Alcoholic hepatitis is a very common cause of liver injury. It is caused by excessive alcohol intake. Typically there will be steatosis of the liver. In this pathological change, fat globules begin to accumulate in...

More

Altered Bowel Habit

Altered bowel habit is very common presenting compliant and can be acute or chronic. For further information, also see the articles diarrhoea and constipation Causes Acute gastroenteritis Simple constipation Irritable bowel or diverticular disease...

More

Autoimmune Hepatitis

Introduction Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a cause of chronic hepatitis. It is also sometimes referred to as chronic active hepatitis.  Any hepatitis that typically lasts >6 months is referred to as chronic. It is characterised by: Increased IgG...

More

Barrett’s Oesophagus

Introduction Also known as Columnar Lined oesophagus (CLO) This is a complication of long term oesophageal reflux. It looks a bit like white pasty finger like projections coming up from the bottom of the...

More

Bilirubin Metabolism and Jaundice

Production of Bilirubin Every haem molecule will produce one molecule of bilirubin. These molecules are found in haemoglobin and myoglobin. Also, cytochrome enzymes will also produce one molecule of bilirubin. The production of bilirubin...

More

Causes of Hepatomegaly

Massive = "CRAM" Cancer – primary and secondary Right heart failure Alcoholic liver disease with fatty infiltration Myeloproliferative diseases (ie Chronic myeloid laekaemia, PRubraVera,Essential Throbocythaemia) Moderate = "FAILL"  all of the above plus Fatty...

More