Amenorrhoea

Amenorrhoea is defined as the absence of menstruation (regular periods) in women of reproductive age. It can be primary or secondary. It is distinctly different from oligmenorrhoea – which is the presence of irregular...

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Antepartum Hemorrhage (APH)

Introduction Antepartum hemorrhage (APH) describes any PV bleeding after 24 weeks gestation . There can be many causes, but the most common are placenta praevia and placental abruption All bleeds during pregnancy are associated...

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Bacterial Vaginosis

THE most common cause of pathological vaginal discharge. Can be caused by an overgrowth of many types of bacteria, usually anaerobes. There is alos often a decrease in the number of lactobacilli. Not sexually...

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Breast Cancer

Epidemiology In the UK, a woman has a 1/9 chance of developing breast cancer It is the most common cause of death in women aged 35-55 The most common cancer in female non-smokers In...

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Caesarian Section

C-section is major surgery, with real risks, and the decision to perform such an operation should not be taken lightly!   Epidemiology Incidence in increasing, mainly due to the increased diagnoses of fetal distress,...

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Cervical Cancer and CIN

Introduction When we talk about cervical cancer, we are normally referring to squamous cell carcinoma. This accounts for about 85-95% of cervical cancer. The remainder is caused by adenocarcinoma. Both types are strongly associated with...

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